Search for:

The Fundamentals of Software Testing | Concepts of testing.

Hey all,

Today, I will let you know the concepts of Testing.

What is Software?.

Software encompasses a collection of instructions or programs that facilitate the performance of specific tasks on a computer or any electronic device. It consists of data and computer instructions guiding the device’s operations.

There are many types of Software

  1. System Software – System software will provide a platform for the products to run and is responsible for managing the computer hardware.
  2. Operating system – This will manage the hardware and software resources of the computer and this is the foundation of all the software.
  3. Application software – Application software, often referred to simply as “applications,” is software designed to perform specific tasks or functions for users. Users interact directly with application software to accomplish particular objectives. Unlike system software, which provides a platform for other software to run, application software serves the end-user directly. Examples of application software include word processing programs like Microsoft Word and spreadsheet applications like Microsoft Excel. Additionally, popular web browsers such as Firefox and Google Chrome are also considered application software, as they enable users to access and interact with content on the internet. The primary purpose of application software is to assist users in performing specified tasks efficiently and effectively.
  4. Development Software – This is a development tool also known as programming tools or software development kits (SDKs). this software will help to create the applications, debug, and maintain software applications.
  5. Driver software – This is hardware-friendly software this software will allow you to communicate with hardware devices.

What is software testing?

Software testing is the process to ensure that, the intended requirements and performes as expected. It is a critical part of the software development lifecycle (SDLC), as it helps to identify and fix bugs before software is released to users.

There are two main types of software testing –

  1. Blackbox Testing – In this testing process a tester does not have any idea about the internal software system, they can only give you the result through the external testing process. They are using the different resources which was provided by the developer and they test the software by providing different inputs and observing the outputs. 
  2. White box Testing – In this testing, every tester will test any product through the code knowledge if they have no idea about the codes they can’t do the white box testing. The tester will test the product with his code and structure knowledge. This method is used in the Unit Testing phase, although it can also occur in other stages such as Integration Tests.

How to check Software quality?

Every tester will assess the software’s quality by following specific phases. The tester or manager will ensure that it meets specified requirements and user expectations. They will also verify whether the functions are working correctly or not.

following specific phases

Reliability – This means the software or product will be bug-free and it should be free from critical defects and errors, ensuring that users can depend on it for their tasks without unexpected failures.

Performance – This is the best testing process to ensure that the product and software can take heavy user workload and high data volumes.

Security – That is the main phase of testing because of this, a product or software will be safe for any users and their customers. Additionally, we can check the performance of any product or software.

Maintainability and Code Quality – This means many times coders will write the wrong code due to this reason the software or products are not working well it is not following the Maintainability and Code Quality criteria. due to this, we have to check the Maintainability and Code Quality of any products and software.

Rate of Delivery – First, after checking the security criteria, a manager will assign a rating to the product. If the product is user-friendly, the manager will give it a good rating, and they will proceed to deliver the product. However, if the product does not meet the users’ criteria, the manager will not allow its delivery and will not assign a rating.

Conduct Unit Testing – This is a part of white box testing, and unit testing is crucial for every product and software during unit testing, testers can find bugs and determine whether the functions are working properly or not. This can be done manually or using automated testing tools.

Perform Integration Testing – This testing is very important to know about the codes and functionality of every product and It involves testing the interfaces between modules and components to ensure seamless integration.

Why do we need testing?

Software is the one which runs the world now. If we take any industry, the software is majorly included to do the main job role. For instance, in science and technology inclusion of software programming can be seen in space machines, aircraft, drones, etc. In this virtual world, any industry you imagine has software products running their businesses behind the scenes.

Now testing is very important to know about the skeleton of any projects or products because the developer can only develop the projects they have no idea about what are the issues or bugs in the projects.

There are some other major benefits of testing a software product which helps businesses to use software applications in a productive way.

Security – Security is the most important part of any product. If you do not conduct security testing, you will not be able to understand whether your functions and security are working properly or not.

Product-quality -Product quality is determined by assessing whether the product is user-friendly and meets the user’s criteria.

Cost-effective – We can know the cost-effective of any product after doing the product quality testing and we can manage the cost of any product.

Customer Satisfaction -If the product has been developed to be user-friendly and meets the user’s expectations, it can be called customer satisfaction.

Level of doing the testing. There are three main testing levels

Unit testing – This is the 1st step to start the testing process because of this you can find the error of codes and bugs.

Integration testing – because of this testing process we can know about the module and infrastructure of any products and software.

System testing – This testing is primarily done by manual testers because they test all the features, functionality, security, and performance developed by the developers.

Different between Project vs Product?

What is the meaning of Project – The meaning of Project is that, A company will make a project by the devloper for the personal use there is no need to send the project of user’s

What is the meaning of Product – The meaning of product is that, basically the main pupuse for making any product is for earning revenue because the product will make for the user’s and users will use the product and pay the charges.

Different –

GoalAchieve a specific goalMeet customer needs
DeliverablesSpecificContinuous improvement
ManagementProject managerProduct manager
LifecyclePlanned and executedDevelopment, introduction, growth, maturity, decline
Different between Project vs Product?

Here are some examples of projects:

  • Building a new website
  • Launching a new product
  • Implementing a new software system
  • Organizing a conference
  • Renovating an office space

Here are some examples of products:

  • Cars
  • Smartphones
  • Software applications
  • Websites
  • Consulting services

In general, projects are used to create new things, while products are used to provide ongoing value to customers. Projects can be thought of as the building blocks of products. Once a project is completed, it can be used to create a product that can be sold or used to provide value to customers.

What is mean by Error, Bug & faliour?

Generally, when developing websites or software, bugs, errors, and failures may arise. This is because no one can achieve perfect coding according to the user’s expectations. Additionally, clients often change the phases of products, leading to the emergence of bugs.

The terms “error,” “bug,” and “failure” are often used interchangeably, but there are subtle distinctions between them.


An error is a mistake made by a human in the process of creating or executing software. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as typos, miscalculations, or misunderstandings of requirements. Errors can lead to unexpected or unintended behavior in the software.


A bug is a specific type of error that occurs in software. It is a mistake in the code that causes the software to malfunction. Bugs can be introduced at any stage of the software development process, from coding to testing. They can be caused by a variety of factors, such as typos, logic errors, or missing functionality. Bugs can lead to crashes, data corruption, or other problems in the software.


A failure is a more general term that can be used to describe any situation in which software does not meet its intended purpose. This can include situations where the software does not function as expected, is not secure, or is not user-friendly. Failures can be caused by a variety of factors, including bugs, errors, and design flaws.

Here is a table summarizing the key differences between errors, bugs, and failures:

ErrorA mistake made by a human in the process of creating or executing software.
BugA specific type of error that occurs in software. It is a mistake in the code that causes the software to malfunction.
FailureA more general term that can be used to describe any situation in which software does not meet its intended purpose.
What is mean by Error, Bug & faliour?

In general, errors are the root cause of bugs, and bugs can lead to failures. However, not all errors lead to bugs, and not all bugs lead to failures. It is important to identify and fix errors early in the software development process to prevent them from becoming bugs and causing failures.


Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x