A Comprehensive Tutorial on Manual Testing Techniques and Best Practices – Functional Testing!

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Hey all,

You all know that I am making a slab report of manual testing and for this, I am writing a blog and in that blog, I am including all types of manual testing’s things. So let’s see it.

What is good software Testing?

Good Software testing is the best way to know the status of your products or applications and this will reduce your development cost and time because after doing the software testing you will be able to know the internal and external structure of the application and product. Functional testing is a type of testing process that to used in the software development process functional testing will test all the functions related to testing like paths and features and after that, it will ensure that the software’s function is ready for the using.

The method of this testing is to know about the customer’s expectations. In the software testing process, the tester will do the testing of functions and find the errors and defects in the software or application. The purpose of software testing is to identify errors, gaps, or missing requirements in contrast to actual requirements. During the software testing process, a tester will let you know that the primary goal of software testing is to detect and fix errors in the software to deliver a reliable and high-quality product to your customers.

The software testing process aims to meet the client’s expectations and identify & rectify defects, bugs, or missing functionalities before releasing the software or product.

Functional Testing

Functional testing is used for the manual testing process and in the functional testing process, a tester will conduct the test phases according to the Functional testing. And because of these phases, you can conduct a good functional testing process and I am dame sure that, you will do good functional testing by following the path of functional testing.

This testing focuses on checking the user interface, security, client, bugs, activities, and functionality of the Application Under Test. We don’t want to use the source codes and other coding-related works because it is a manual testing process and a manual tester has to test each of the functions in a software or product also we have to make a test case for each of the software testing works so for that If we will find any errors we can add this error in the test case.

In one word, in the functional testing process, we just meet the client’s expectation only and we will give a satisfactory result to the clients.

Purposes of the Functional testing?

First of all, functional testing follows the black-box testing process, and this testing can be done manually. The purpose of functional testing is to –

  1. Requirements analysis: The first step in functional testing is to meet the client’s expectations. If our client is satisfied with our work, it indicates successful product delivery, whereas dissatisfaction implies a failure to meet client expectations. Therefore, a thorough analysis of the client’s requirements is essential before commencing work.
  2. Identifying bugs and errors: Functional testing aims to detect errors and bugs within the software, ensuring that it is free from defects and that all functions operate correctly.
  3. Quality Improvement – By conducting the functional testing first we will check the functions and errors or if you find any issues then we should create a test case and send it to the developer because of this the software will work well and it will be very easy to use for any users due to this reason the quality of the software is got high.
  4. Reduce the risk of software – The Aim is to conduct functional testing to reduce the risk of any software because by following the functional testing process, we can find the errors and we can implement the security because security issues a major issue of any software if you will be satisfied to your users for the security services then the user will come into your software and they will use it for their work.
  5. User-friendly environment – The purpose of functional testing is to make a good environment between the software and users. if the user is happy to use the software without any issues that means your software is user-friendly software and people will love to use your software.

What to Test in Functional Testing?

The aim of functional testing is to check the correct or incorrect functions in the software and deduct the bugs from the software because the software needs correct functions and if the function is correct and your software is working well with good quality it means the software’s function is good and it is working very well.

Functional testing encompasses a broad range of testing activities aimed at evaluating whether a software application adheres to its specified functional requirements. These requirements define the expected behavior of the application in response to various inputs and conditions. Functional testing ensures that the application performs as intended, delivers the desired outputs, and meets the expectations of end-users.

The comprehensive overview of what to test in functional testing.

User Interface (UI) Testing – If the UI is interesting to the software and understandable for users, users will use this software because it is visible to your user that’s why the Software User Interface is the most important part of a Software Development process.

Functional Requirements – During the testing, we have to check the status of all the software functions because this is our main work to verify the functions of any software and understand the requirements for the software.

Data Validation – Data validation is a basic thing to ensure that the inputs are meeting the correct path because data will meet the correct path which means you are making good software if the input data does not meet the correct path then the tester will make a test case and assign this test case to the developers for fixing the issue.

Accessibility – A tester will have to check the accessibility between the users and the software because it is a very important thing to know that the user will be able to use the software in full swim without any issues.

Regression Testing – In this testing if the developer will change the functions of software by his coding after that we have to check the validation of this function again because by doing the coding developer will make the mistake and due to this mistake software functions will break that’s why we have to do the regression testing during the development process.

The process to be followed in the Functional Testing.

Identify test input – In this process, we need to test all functions, and it is crucial to address any errors that require testing. We must review the test cases, and if anything is pending, we need to send a reminder to the developer team.

Compute expected outcomes – In simple terms, if we enter the input, and that input meets the user’s expectations while producing a favorable result, it means our outcomes are as expected.

Execute test cases – We all know that in the testing process, a tester needs to create test cases at every step. This allows the tester to identify where errors have been found and which functions are not working. That’s why test cases are a crucial part of a tester’s role.

Compare the actual and expected output – The main purpose of this point is to emphasize the importance of following the regression testing and re-testing process. It is crucial to verify that all functions are working as expected and delivering the intended output to users.

Techniques of functional testing.

The functional testing technique is so joyful because of this testing a tester will find the errors in the software and they are creating test cases after the testing, he assigns the test cases to the developer for the fixing of errors

Here are the techniques of functional testing:

Unit Testing – This is a basic part of testing because in this testing process, we create new tickets in the format of test cases and after that, we find errors & bugs. Lastly, we will we are verifying all the functions are working well or not.

Integration Testing: In this testing technique we are giving satisfaction to the clients. we are testing all the modules and functions of the software and we are checking that all the functions will meet the acceptance of clients and users.

Smoke Testing: In this testing technique we verify only the basic functionality and features that will be tested by the tester of every software after that, we will check that all the functions are working well and meet the acceptance of the clients

User Acceptance Testing: In this testing technique we are doing testing as a user and we will find the bugs as a user acceptance and create a test case of every error, This is the final phase of testing in every development phase.

Interface Testing: In this testing technique we will check the functions between the inputs and outputs if the software meets the client’s requirement it means the software is well and we will do this testing before releasing the software.

Usability Testing: if the UI and function are very well for use and understanding it means we are going in a good way and we will meet the result soon.

System Testing: In this testing technique first we understand the requirements and then we will start to do the testing at all the places in the software.

Regression Testing: In this technique, we will do the testing after adding a new function because during the coding developer will destroy the function because he has no idea if they will add a new function so the old function will be broken.

Sanity Testing: This is the same technique as regression testing after the code changing we will do the testing and the status of the software. If any error is found then we will create test cases and assign them to the developer.

White box Testing: In white box testing it is allowed to do the testing in the internal and external basic no need to check it as an external. We are doing testing and assigning tickets to developers. and This includes analyzing the code, infrastructure, and integrations with the external system.

Black box Testing: In this testing, we don’t have any internal or external code base idea we are just doing functional testing if the function is not working then we will create a ticket and assign it to the developer.

Database Testing: We will check the data in the software and we will check the functions and verify it because if this is not working according to the requirements then the database is giving wrong information to us.

Adhoc Testing: In this testing, a tester does not follow any test plan or has not prepared any document for testing and we are calling it mankey testing.

Static Testing: In the static testing technique we will do the basic testing on the stats base and we check all the basic parts of any software. And we are chocking defects in software without actually executing the code of the software application.

Greybox Testing: in the gray box testing technique we are doing testing on an internal or external basic because in the gray box, there are included both types of testing white and black box testing that’s why.

Component Testing: Component testing, also known as program testing or module testing, is a type of software testing conducted after unit testing. In this phase, the test objects can be evaluated independently as components without integration with other components.

Functional Testing Tools

Functional testing tools are valuable assets in ensuring the software meets its intended functionality and user requirements. They can automate repetitive tasks, improve efficiency, and increase test coverage.

Here’s an overview of some popular functional testing tools:


  • Selenium: A powerful and widely used automation framework that supports various browsers and languages.
  • Appium: An open-source framework for mobile app testing across Android and iOS platforms.
  • SoapUI: Designed for API testing, it supports various protocols and facilitates test automation.
  • Katalon Studio: A comprehensive platform offering web, API, mobile, and desktop application testing with built-in recording and reporting features.
  • Cypress: A JavaScript-based framework specifically designed for web app testing, offering ease of use and integration with popular frameworks.


  • UFT (Unified Functional Testing): A robust tool from Micro Focus, offering extensive features for web, API, mobile, and desktop applications.
  • TestComplete: Another comprehensive tool by SmartBear, featuring keyword-driven testing, scriptless automation, and AI capabilities.
  • Ranorex: A visual testing tool with object recognition capabilities, offering efficient test creation and execution.
  • Tricentis Tosca: A modular platform focusing on risk-based testing, AI-powered scriptless automation, and test case reusability.
  • BrowserStack Automate: A cloud-based platform for web app testing across various browsers and devices.

Choosing the right tool:

The best tool for you depends on your specific needs and requirements. Consider factors such as:

  • Budget: Open-source options are free to use, while commercial tools come with licensing fees.
  • Features: Analyze the features each tool offers and prioritize those most relevant to your testing needs.
  • Platform support: Ensure the tool supports the platforms and technologies you’re testing.
  • Ease of use: Consider the learning curve and technical expertise required to use the tool effectively.
  • Integrations: Evaluate compatibility and potential integration with existing tools and workflows.

Best Practices for Functional Testing

Understand Requirements: The first thing to do the understand the basic requirements of every software development process because if we do not understand the requirements then it is not good for the software and clients will not accept it.

Test Planning: We have to make the test planning of every software development process because it is most important to make the environment of testing and good setup of testing. And if we have a test plan then we will do the testing as per the requirement.

Regression Testing: If the developer does the coding and adds the new codes after that some of the function codes will be broken and the old function will not work so we have to do regression testing to resolve all the errors.

Documentation: During the testing process we have to make Documentation of every step of the software because it is very helpful for us for future work.

Performance Testing: Performance testing is an important testing process for every software development process because if the software works fluently no bugs are found. So the software is working well and users will give good feedback for our software.

Security Testing: Security testing is the blood of the software testing process because the security process is developed well and no errors can be found then the user will come to use that software because many software uses customers’ data for their purposes that’s why users are not using this types of software.

Execution and Reporting: In the Execution and Reporting testing process we are focusing on the critical functionalities and high-risk areas of the software. If any bugs or errors we will be found then we will report this issue to the team and they will do the resoulation for this error.

Test frequently: Prepare a basic test automation bucket and create a strategy for frequent execution of this test bucket.

Benefits of using Functional Testing

Functional testing offers numerous benefits throughout the software development lifecycle, enhancing software quality, user experience, and overall project success.

Here are some key benefits:

Bug-free product: If we conduct the testing process for the software then the tester will find errors, bugs, and non-functional things, and after that they are reporting to us and also they will make the test cases for the bugs and errors. Because of this, your product will become a bug-free product after completing this process.

Customer satisfaction: If your product works smoothly and the functions of this product are running well because of this user will use your product for their personal use and they will give you a satisfactory result.

Testing focussed on specifications: The functional testing process covers all the customer satisfaction things because, during the functional testing, we are checking all the functions and features of the software.

Proper working of application: During the testing, a tester will give the surety that, we will give you a good result by our testing and your application will work properly and no bug will be found.

Improves quality of the product: Improvement of the quality is the most important part of every software because of this, the product will become a usability product for the users and due to improvement of their quality it will cover the space in the market soon.

Increased Test Coverage: Through the testing process tester will find the errors and bugs in the software and they will create test cases.

Cost-Effective: Through the testing process you can save your time in development because developers will do the development process without knowing the bugs they are running continuously for the development but after the testing developer can know about the bugs and errors and after that, they will fix it and the developer will try to finish this work asp.

Optimized User Experience: If the software is working well and no bugs and errors are found then we can do the user optimization process from the users and we can do more implementation on the software.

Improved brand reputation: We all are know that, if the users will like to use our software then they will make a reputation for that software and also they will say to their friends for using to this software.

Improved time-to-market: It means our software will be running fluently and users will love to use our software so we can realise the software soon and due to this we can capture the market value soon.


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